Çarşamba, Eylül 28, 2022

es-selâmu kable-l-kelâm

Rahman ve Rahim olan Allah’ın adıyla

KIRK HADİS TERCEMESİ VE ŞERHİ’nden*

(Birinci hadîs)

“es-selâmu kable-l-kelâm”
“Selam, konuşmadan önce(likli)dir.”

 

Merfû’**  hadislerdendir. Sahih-i Tirmizî’de bulunmaktadır. Câbir b. Abdullah el-Ensârî (radiyallahu anh) rivayet etmiştir.

Hidâye sahibi Tecnîs ve Mezîd adlı kitabında yazar ki:

“Bir kimse bir kimseye gelse içeriye girmeden önce izin istesin. Ondan sonra girip selam versin. Çünkü Hak teala kelamında şöyle buyurur: [Ey iman edenler! Kendi evlerinizden başka evlere, sahiplerinden izin istemeden (onlarla ünsiyet etmeden) ve selam vermeden girmeyin. Bu, sizin için daha hayırlıdır. Olur ki iyice düşünürsünüz (hikmetini kavrarsınız). Nur suresi, 27. ayet]. Ayette, selamdan önce “istînâs” emrediliyor; bu kelime “izin istemek” ile tefsir edilmiştir. Bu edebe, evde olunduğunda uyulması gerekir. Ama dışarıda iken bir Müslüman diğer Müslümanın üzerine gelse selam versin, sonra konuşmaya başlasın. Zira Resûlullâh (sallallâhu aleyhi ve sellem) “Men tekelleme kable-s-selâmi felâ tecîbûhu” buyurmuştur; “Selamdan önce kim konuşmaya başlarsa ona cevap vermeyin” demektir. Abdullah b. Selâm (radiyallahu anh) rivayet eder ki “İlk işittiğim bu hadistir: “Yemek yedirin; selamı yayın; sıla-yı rahm eyleyin (Akrabalarınızı ziyaret edin); halk uyurken namaz kılın; ta ki cennete selametle giresiniz.”

”Lokman Hakîm (alâ nebiyyinâ ve aleyhisselam) oğluna buyurmuştur ki:

”Ey oğulcuğum! Ne zaman bir topluluğa varırsan onlara İslam okunu at yani selam ver.”

Ebu Umâme (radiyallahu anh), Nebi (sallallahu aleyhi ve sellem) hazretlerinden rivayet eder ki:“Bizden başkasına benzemeye çalışan bizden değildir; Yahudi ve Hristiyanlara benzemeyin ki Yahudilerin selamı parmağıyla, Hristiyanların el ayalarıyla işarettir.”

Rivayet olunur ki Hıristiyanların selamı eli ağzına koymak, Yahudilerinki parmağıyla işaret, Mecûsîlerinki ise eğilmektir. Câhiliye devrinde Arapların selamı “HayyakAllâh (Allah ömür versin.)” ve meliklerine “En’ame sabâhan” demekti. Müslümanların selamı da “es-selâmu aleykum ve rahmetullah ve berekâtuhu” demektir; selamın en olgunu ve şereflisi budur.

Eflatûn-ı Hâkim’den rivayet olunur ki:

Büyüklerin yanına girdiğinizde size düşen hafifçe selam vermek, az konuşmak ve ayağa kalkmakta acele etmektir.”

Hadîsin nazmen tercümesi:

ser-i peygamberân-ı rabb-i selâm
ya’ni ki Mustafâ aleyhisselâm
buyurdu ki kable kulli kelâm
dâhil olsan ver ehl-i beyte selâm

*Bu hadisleri (h.934’de) toplayan ve nazm eden meşhur Şeyhülislam Kemal Paşazade (İbn Kemal)’dir (1648–1534). Mütercimi de (h.979’da) Âşık Çelebi (Nettâî)’dir. Eser, H.1316 (m.1898)’de basılmıştır.

** Merfû’, Hazret-i Peygamber (aleyhissalâtu vesselâm) hazretlerine nisbet edilen söz ve haber manasındaki hadis terimidir.

///  Bu yazı, Yüce Devlet Dergisi’nde (1 Eylül 2009, 1. sayı) yayınlanmıştır.

 

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