İslam Medeniyetinin en parlak ve muhteşem açılımlarından biri olan Endülüs tarihinin ilk dönemi, Emevi hanedanının (H.138–420; M.756-1029’da) sona ermesiyle kapanmıştır. Son Emevi Halifesi III. Hişâm bin Muhammed bin Abdülcabbâr’ın devletin merkezini tanımayan valilerin müstakil hükümetler kurup birbirlerine düşmeleriyle başlayan kargaşalığa son veremeyip bir hükümdara yakışmayacak bir şekilde, başşehir Kurtuba’yı ve halkını terk edip ayrılmasından sonra Endülüs’te Tavaif-i Mülûk (beylikler) dönemi başlar. III. Hişam, Endülüs’ün acı sonunu ileri görüşü ve derin sezgisiyle anlayarak eyaletlerde devletçikler kuran valileri ikaz etmiş ve gerekli öğütleri vermişse de, siyasi ve askeri gücünün de yetersiz olmasından kabul ettirememiştir. Devamlı olarak birbirleriyle çatışan ve hatta yekdiğerini ortadan kaldırmak için Hıristiyan devletlerle ittifaktan çekinmeyen bu devletçikler sonunda İspanya’dan İslamiyet’in silinmesine sebep oldular.
Eşsiz ve benzersiz, aynı derecede talihsiz Endülüs… Hemen her sahada yetiştirdiği âlim ve sanatkârlarla, kurduğu teşkilat ve müesseselerle İslam Medeniyetinin büyük bir hamlesi, ışığını şarka ve özellikle garba ulaştıran parlak güneşi, derin ve geniş muhtevasını yepyeni şekil ve boyutlara ulaştıran güçlü açılımı olmuştur. Lakin sanki böyle bu derecede iyi olmanın cezasını çekmiş, Hıristiyanların yüzyıllar süren korkunç zulümleriyle İspanya’dan kovulmuş ve hatta izleri dahi silinmek istenmiştir. Asırlarca Müslümanlara payitaht olan muhteşem camii, medrese, saray, hamam vesair eserlerle bezeli Kurtuba’da bir köprü ve birkaç mimari yapıdan başka eser bırakılmamıştır.
Adil ve dürüst Müslümanların İspanya’yı fethi yalnızca üç senede gerçekleşmiş, çıkarılmaları ise yüzyılları içine alan eşsiz bir zulüm ve şiddetle olmuştur… Müslümanların İspanya’da muhteşem bir uygarlık kurduktan sonra inhitatları için birçok sebep sıralanabilir. Lakin en belli başlısı İslamlar arasındaki birliğin bozulması ve bir daha kurulamamasıdır. Yukarıda bahsi geçen Halife III. Hişam’dan sonra da birçok melik, kadı, fakih ve âlimler birliğin teminine azami gayret sarf etmişlerdir. Hatta Baca Kadısı Ebül-Velid (H. 478, M. 1085’de) şehirden şehre, beylikten beyliğe, memleketten memlekete ittihadın yerinden sağlanması için gezip durmuş, melik ve emirlere İslam’ın bu husustaki emir ve yasaklarını hatırlatıp nasihat vermeye kendini adeta adamıştır. Bu gibi sonuç vermeyen çabaların akabinde aynı sene Kurtuba, Hıristiyanların eline geçmiş, Müslümanlara ait ne varsa yerle bir edilmiştir.
Aslında bütün emirlerin gayesi, Endülüs’te hilafetin yeniden tesisi ve birliğin kurulmasıydı. Fakat hep birbirlerini yok etmek için uğraşmışlar, güçlenen Hıristiyan devletlere karşı ise hiçbir şey yapamamışlardır. Yekdiğerine aslan kesilip Hıristiyanların önünde süt dökmüş kediler misali uysallaşıvermişlerdir. Din gayretini bir yana bırakarak kavim gayreti gütmüşler; Araplar Berberileri, Berberiler Arapları ezmek için hatta Hıristiyan devletlerle işbirliğinden çekinmemişlerdir. Sonunda zillet derekelerinin en korkunçlarına yuvarlanıvermişlerdir. Ayrıca bu basiretsiz ve hamiyetsizliklerinden başka, ele geçen İslam şehirlerinde Müslüman ahaliye Hıristiyanların uyguladıkları baskı ve zulümlerden bir ders de almamışlardır.
Endülüs’te, Tavaif-i Müluk döneminde, hükümdarlardan birisi, İslam tarihinde başka örneği görülmeyen bir şekilde bir Yahudi’yi kendine vezir yapmıştı. Gırnata Eyaletinde miladi 1012 ile 1090 yılları arasında hüküm sürmüş olan Berberi Beni Zîrî hanedanından Bâdîs b. Habbûs’un veziri İsmail b. Nagzela (Samuel H-Levi b. Nagdela) aslında zeki, bilgili, alçakgönüllü ve ılımlı bir kimseydi. İlmiyle İran, Filistin ve Mısır gibi ülkelerin Yahudileri arasında tanınmıştı ve aynı zamanda şair ve filozoftu; Yahudi dilindeki (Hebrevce) Talmud’a bir mukaddime ve Hebrev grameriyle ilgili eserler yazmıştır. Önceleri Badis’in babası Habbus’un zamanında vezir Ebül Kâsım b. Arif’in sarayına yakın bir yerde ufak bir dükkan çalıştırmaktaydı. Samuel’in değerli bir kişi olduğunu anlayan vezir, onu kendisine yardımcı olarak tayin eder. Ebül Kasım’ın vefatı üzerine vezir seçilen Samuel kuvvetli bir idareci, dirayetli bir yöneticiydi. Gırnata’da asayiş ve emniyeti sağlamış ve tebaayı rahat ettirmişti. Samuel sayesinde Gırnata gelişmeye başladı. Miladi 1055’te öldüğünde beylik çökmeye başlamıştır.
Gırnata Emiri Bâdîs hunhar ve ayyaş bir müstebitti. Hâkimiyetini takviye için cinayetler işlemekten çekinmedi; bu cümleden olarak el-Meriyye’nin (Almeria) Arap Emiri Züheyr ve veziri İbn Abbas’ı haince öldürtmüştü (Bu şahıslar ilmi ve edebi çalışmalara büyük alaka duymuşlar ve saray kütüphanesinde yüz binden fazla kitap toplamışlardı.) Daha sonra, İşbiliyye (Sevilla)’de hüküm süren Arap hanedanı Abbâdîlere karşı bitmez tükenmez harplere girişti. Abbâdîlerin bazı Berberi reislerini öldürmesi üzerine, Gırnata’daki Arap ahaliyi bir cuma namazı esnasında camide katlettirmeyi kararlaştırdıysa da veziri Samuel bu tasavvuru büyük güçlüklerle önledi.
Samuel’in ölümünden sonra vezir olan oğlu Yusuf (Joseph) kibirli, gösteriş düşkünü ve azametten hoşlanan bir kimseydi. İsmen Yahudi’ydi, fakat diniyle bir alakası yoktu, ne atalarının ne de başkalarının inancına sahip değildi. Yahudiliğe açıkça bir cephe almamışsa da, halkın arasında Kur’an ayetleriyle alaydan çekinmemiş ve İslam’ın sahte bir din olduğunu ilan etmişti. Kibri, hak ve adaleti küçük görmesiyle Joseph Arapları, Berberileri, yerli halkı ve hatta Yahudileri bile kızdırıyordu. Nefsine hükmetmeyi pek az başaran Bâdîs’in kendi gücünü kısacak her atılımını hemen önlüyor; görevlendirdiği casusları sayesinde hükümdarın en küçük hareketlerinden bile hemen haber alabiliyordu. Ayrıca melik ve veziri aynı derece ve seviyede ihtişam içerisindeydiler. Joseph hatta emirden daha fazla hükümdarlık taslayabiliyordu. Veliahdı öldürüp bir Yahudi krallığının kurulmasına önayak olmak istediği söyleniyordu. Bir de el–Meriyye hükümdarıyla anlaşarak ülkesini sattığı dedikodusu yayılmıştı. Bu ve buna benzer binlerce suç ve cinayet Joseph’e isnat ediliyor ve ahali Joseph ve her yere yerleştirdiği Yahudilerden kurtulmanın çarelerini arıyordu.
Bâdis’in bir İslam memleketinde bir Yahudi’yi baş vezir yapmasının acayipliğinin yanı sıra; dinsiz ve zalim olmasına ve İslam dinini sahte ilan etmesine rağmen Joseph’e güvenmesi elbette ulema tarafından da hoş görülmemişti. Açıkça tenkit ediliyor, uyarılıyordu. Alim, şair ve fakih Elbiralı Ebu İshak hazretleri de üzerine düşen irşat vazifesini yapmaya çalışan bir kimse olarak Joseph’in ve Yahudilerin kötülüklerini anlatan bir kasideyi Bâdîs’e takdim etmişti. Joseph’in şerri bu zata da erişmiş, saraydaki yükselmesini engelleyip sürgüne göndermişti. Müslümanların hain bir Yahudi tarafından zulümle yönetilip korkunç şiddet ve teröre maruz kalmasına dayanamayan Ebu İshak, hükümdar ve ahaliyi, şiirin Endülüs’teki revacından faydalanarak uyarmıştı. Aşağıya tercümesini aldığımız şiiri lakin Joseph’e sınırsızca güvenen Bâdîs üzerinde pek etki bırakmadı. Fakat Berberiler üzerinde son derece kuvvetli bir tesir icra etti. Zaten Joseph’in ve Yahudilerin zulümlerinden iyice fütur getirmişlerdi. Bir isyan başlatarak saraya saldırdılar. Joseph kendini kömür mahzenine gizleyip bulamasınlar diye üzerini kömür tozlarına buladıysa da ortaya çıkarılıp hemen öldürüldü. Uzun bir zaman içerisinde Yahudi vezir ve onun tayin ettiği Yahudi memurlardan, bu sebeple şımaran Yahudilerden bıkan Müslüman ahali, bununla yetinmeyerek şehirlerdeki dört bin kadar Yahudi’yi öldürüp mallarını yağmaladı (M. 1066; Ebu İshak hazretlerinin vefatı da aynı senededir.)
ELEŞTİRİ ve UYARI ŞİİRİ
git ve ilet haberlerimi bu sözlerimi benim
söyle gecenin dolunaylarına ve zamanın aslanlarına
git ey haberci sevgili ulağım benim
anlat onlara, seven ve acıyan adamın sözlerini
çünkü kan ağlıyor yüreğinde taşıyor endişesini,
söyle ey haberci bu adamın kelimelerini
ki o anlatmazsa dertlerini vermezse öğütlerini
sorumlu hissediyor söylemezse ihtiyat tedbirlerini
ağır bir vebal var diyor yiyip bitiriyor kendini.
dinen yükümlüdür o mecburdur muvaffak olmaya
tebliğ edip gerçekleri anlatmaya
bildirmeye tehlikeyi uçurumu göstermeye:
efendiniz hükümdarınız reisiniz sizin
bir iş yapmıştır ki kötüleri sevindiren
ancak onlara yaramış onları hoşnut etmiştir,
kafirin birini seçmiş vezir diye kendine
kendinizden bir yardımcı seçeceğine
bir düşmanı getirmiştir önemli bir mevkiye,
kibri ve küstahlığı sınıf tanımayan
alçak ve rezil bir yahudi vezir olmuştur;
arzularına emellerine nasıl da erişiverdiler
en yüksek mertebelere en yüce mevkilere
aşağılık yahudilerden serseri kimselerden
akıllarının ucundan bile geçiremezken
en aşağılık maymunlar kuyruklu mukallitler
inançsız imansız değersiz heriflerden,
samimi ve ciddi dindarların
hizmetçilerinden sıradan kölelerinden.
kendi gayretleriyle olsa yanmazdım
alın terleriyle ve derin çabalarıyla
hayır! onları başımıza geçiren bu derece yükselten
esefle derim ki bizden bir adamdır, kendi dinimizden,
yazıklar olsun! neden örnek almamıştır
niçin takip etmemiştir kutlu yollarını
dindar şehzadelerin ciddi hükümdarların
imanlı kimselerin samimi insanların.
niçin kibrini kırmamıştır burnunu sürtmemiş
aşağılık yahudilerin iğrenci fanilerin,
lâyıktır onlar buna hedefleri nefretin
serseri muamelesi görmeye sürü gibi idare edilmeye;
haddini bilmezlik edemez tepeden bakamazlardı
hürmette kusur etmez hükmedemezdi asilzadelere.
ey bâdîs! akıllı bir adamsın sen zeki ve ferasetli
ileri görüşlüsün doğru çıkar tahminlerin,
gözlerin mi bağlıydı görmedin mi iblisleri
boynuzlarını sallayan idaren altındakilerden?
nasıl da göz yumdun bütün bu kötülüklere,
nasıl muhabbet duydun bu sefillerden ne bekledin,
yaptığını yıkıyorlardı kurduğunu bozuyorken.
bir haine güvendin ve dost yaptın kendine
unuttun mu rabbinin bildirdiğini kitabında,
bir dinsize yakın olamazsın kafiri dost edinmezsin
fermanı budur allahın yüce kur’anında.
yardımcı seçme kendine sokma adamlarının arasına
lakin müsaade etme gaile de çıkarmalarına,
yeryüzü ürküyor çünkü insanlık haykırıyor
her şeyi mahvedecek bunlar depremler oluyor,
çevir gözlerini de bak ülkelerin aynasına
köpek muamelesi görmekteler sürekli aşağılanmakta,
söylenenleri dinle kulak ver kutlu öğütlere
yahudiden sakın! ve uzak tut halkımızdan.
değiştir yolunu bundan böyle yeni bir üslubun olsun
aziz şehzade, dostu ve yardımcısı halkının,
asilzadesin gelmektesin hükümdar sülalesinden
ve geçtin hepsini üstün oldun krallarına zamanın
ileri gittin hatta üstün çıktın atalarından
arkada bıraktın yürüdün saltanat basamaklarını…
ah! gırnataya girdim gördüm ki yahudiler hükümferma
ve yaralandım kavruldum kahroldum sonunda,
bölmüşler her yeri hisselerine ayırmışlar
parçalamışlar vilayetleri payitahta oturmuşlar
bir tek kendileri neşe içinde cıvıl cıvıl
yahudiler menfur adamlar meşum kimseler
vergi alıyor kazanç sahibi ve zengin oluyorlar
şahane yaşıyorlar onlar ferah içinde,
muhteşem kumaşlar en güzel elbiseler
zengin kıyafetler onların üzerlerinde,
ve siz müslümanlar eski püskü elbiselerinizle
yamalı giysilerinizle sokağa çıkmaya utanırken.
bütün sırları devletin gizli işleri bilgisinde onların
eline geçmiş hainlerin soysuz kimselerin.
en nefis yemekleri en leziz gıdaları
saraylarda bitiriyorlar debdebe içinde.
bir kuru ekmeğe talim ediyorken mü’minler
aç kalıyorken kimi zaman sefalet içinde.
tercih etti size bâdîs kayırarak yahudileri
daha ne kadar katlanacaksınız ne zaman başkaldıracak
müslümanlar! yerinizi kaptılar ayağınızı kaydırıp
onlar geçti en şerefli mevkilere en yükseğini seçip.
en güzel hayvanları koyun ve keçi ve sığırdan
kesen ve yiyen afiyetle onlardır alıp paramızdan
kalanlar size ancak kötü ve arık olanları
yiyin yiyebilirseniz artık elverirse mideniz.
süslemiş malikanesini maymunların başı
her yerini en pahalı mermerlerle,
çeşmeler yaptırmış sarayına fıskıyeli havuzlar
uzak yerlerden getirtmiş temiz ve berrak suları.
fakat heyhat kapılarda bekletiyorlar içeri almıyorlar
alay ediyorlar sürekli başa kakıyorlar,
maruz kalıyor halkımız en ağır hakaretlere
ah! yüce dinimize bile dil uzatılıyor.
bu ne zillet ya rabbi! ne ağır bir utanç bu
ne bu rezalet, bu ne ihanet ya rabbi!
ey bâdîs gerçeği söylememi istersen
vezirin zengindir derim senden bile zengin,
zamanı gelmedi mi daha ortadan kaldırmanın
şişko koyunu artık darağacına asmanın;
unutma lakin akraba ve arkadaşlarını
bertaraf et de eriştiremesinler zararlarını,
asıl hain onlardır düşünme sen ihanet diye
vefa borcun Müslümanlaradır masum günahsızlara,
cani olanın nefes alması bile haram
cürmü işleyen çekecek ceremeyi cezayı,
ahdi bozan onlardır anlaşmayı çiğneyen
kimin ne düşer kahretsen yalan yere yemin edeni.
cevap ver söyle bize nasıl muvaffak olacağız kuvvet bulacak
gölgesinde yaşarken yahudinin debdebeden gözlerimiz kamaşırken,
nasıl mamur olacak ülkemiz nasıl refah bulacak
sultasında ezilirken yahudinin şaşaasından geçilemezken;
sen de katlanma artık yalvartma zavallı milleti
bizden soracaksan onu sor kafirin nasıl idare edileceğini,
aklını başına devşir de düşün, hesap vereceksin
unutma halkına sen çoban diye seçilmişken,
gizlidir burada sonsuz mutluluğun ey bâdîs ebedi saadet
dinle rabbinin emirlerini, göster nasihat dinlediğini.
/// Bu yazı ve şiir; H.M. Hepsev’in Şiir Bilgisi (Mayıs 1992, s.26–35) kitabında yayınlanmıştır.
*Eleştiri ve Uyarı Şiiri adını verdiğimiz eser, Reinhart Dozy’nin Spanish İslam adlı
kitabının 651–652. sayfalarından alınarak çevrilmiştir. Bu şiir, hiciv türünün en muhteşem örneklerindendir ve ayrıca şiirin gücünü göstermesi bakımından son derece dikkat çekicidir.
KAYNAKLAR: Halil Edhem, Düvel-i İslamiye, Maarif Vekâleti tarafından, İstanbul, 1927. (Stanley Lane-Poole’un İslam Devletleri ve Sülaleleri adlı eserine bazı ilavelerle çevrilen bu eser İslam harfleriyle neşredilmiştir.); Reinhart DOZY, Spanish İslam: A History of the Moslems in Spain, Fransızcadan İngilizceye çeviren Francis Griffin Stokes, Karaçi, Pakistan, 1976; Muhammed İmamüddün, Prof. Dr., Endülüs Siyasi Tarihi, çev. Yusuf YAZAR, Rehber yay., Ankara, 1990; M. Zekai KONRAPA, “Endülüs Mersiyesi-Nizami Tercümesi ve Endülüs Tarihine Kısa Bir Bakış”, İstanbul Yüksek Enstitüsü Dergisi, Sayı 2, s. 165–184, İstanbul, 1964; Ziya Paşa, Endülüs Tarihi, İstanbul, 1304 (m. 1886; ikinci tab’).
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